The design of steam and other types of power production have increased more interest from the oxidation in the conditions of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
Subjecting to moderate conditions in such media tends to the leads to the creation of security layer as stated previously, but when conditions become quite rigorous, film breakdown can happen. The onset of the change is unpredictable and sensitive to metal composition.
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However, the reaction mechanisms are similar in atmosphere, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide response rates may change appreciably. By way of instance, similar scaling behavior was discovered in oxygen and air except that scale breakdown takes place more quickly in oxygen.
The grade 302 gets rapid rust in moist air at 2000oF or 1093oC whereas safety layer is created in dry air. The nickel content in steel grade 330 is less likely to the moisture effects, therefore it's believed that increased content of nickel and chromium supplies higher performance temperatures in moist air.
It's tough to describe the maximum service temperatures for steam service, 1 reason is that the sensitivity of corrosion rate to surface state, the smooth cold processed surfaces reduce the corrosion effects from the steam operations. Frequent austenitic stainless steel grades can operate at temperatures around 1600oF or 871oC and grades 309, 310 and 446 in the higher temperature limits.
The steel grades 304, 321 and 347 are used in the low-pressure steam systems in the temperatures up to 1400oF or 760oC. The coating on type 304, 316 and 347 will exfoliate in the elevated temperatures. The oxidation of stainless steels in carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide atmospheres in 1100 to 1800oF or 593 to 982oC brings attention because of their use in the gas cooled nuclear reactors.